Protraction and retraction are anterior-posterior movements of the scapula or mandible.
- Protraction of the scapula occurs when the shoulder is moved forward, as when pushing against something or throwing a ball.
- Retraction is the opposite motion, with the scapula being pulled posteriorly and medially, toward the vertebral column.
For the mandible, protraction occurs when the lower jaw is pushed forward, to stick out the chin, while retraction pulls the lower jaw backward. (Picture 1 j).